Parodi shows that boundary disputes have and continue to play a major role in creating tensions in South America. Of the 25 international territorial boundaries that exist in South America, eight were marked with major wars, eight with lesser wars, and five with some level of violence. As recently as 1995, the armies of Ecuador and Peru were at war to define a boundary. In 1982 Argentina went to war, inspired by the call to restore a piece of its mutilated national territory. Venezuela and Guyana, Guyana and Suriname, and Suriname and French Guiana have not completed boundary demarcation agreements. Bolivia's insistence on its right for sovereign access to the Pacific Ocean is a source of tension with Chile and Peru. Colombia and Venezuela have unresolved boundary issues in the Gulf of Venezuela. Clearly, boundary disputes have and continue to play a major role in creating larger conflicts within South America. Territorial boundaries are marks on the ground, but, as Parodi shows, their staying power or stability depends on their grip on consciousness. By examining the boundary theory of South American states and its implementation, he also explains how the symbolic system of South American boundaries is used to instill national identity, mobilize people to war, and control population and territory. This text will be of particular interest to scholars, students, and researchers involved with Latin American politics, diplomacy, and international relations.
Crossing Boundaries: Ethnicity, Race, and National Belonging in a Transnational World, edited by Brian D. Behnken and Simon Wendt, explores ethnic and racial nationalism within a transnational and transcultural framework in the long twentieth-century (late nineteenth to early twenty-first century). The contributors to this volume examine how national solidarity and identity- with its vast array of ideological, political, intellectual, social, and ethno-racial qualities-crossed juridical, territorial, and cultural boundaries to become transnational; how it altered the ethnic and racial visions of nation-states throughout the twentieth century; and how it ultimately influenced conceptions of national belonging across the globe. Human beings live in an increasingly interconnected, transnational, global world. National economies are linked worldwide, information can be transmitted around the world in seconds, and borders are more transparent and fluid. In this process of transnational expansion, the very definition of what constitutes a nation and nationalism in many parts of the world has been expanded to include individuals from different countries and, more importantly, members of ethno-racial communities. But crossing boundaries is not a new phenomenon. In fact, transnationalism has a long and sordid history that has not been fully appreciated. Scholars and laypeople interested in national development, ethnic nationalism as well as world history will find Crossing Boundaries indispensable.
I want you to take a journey with me to a time and place where nothing in the world matters except that moment, that exquisite instant, that is in front of you. The one that enables one's being to become enveloped into a world only existent in the heart of someone that is deeply upon the throws of passion and love. Take my hand and let me guide you to a memory, so you may recollect that time in your own life, when only the other person mattered. Step off with your left foot, and join me while I lead the way.
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